Agitation is a method used in cannabis processing to separate plant’s trichomes from the flower buds and leaves. The plant material is first cooled down and then softly stirred to break off the trichomes which contain the plant’s active ingredients. This process ensures both the cannabinoids and terpenes are safely preserved.
Alcohol extraction, also referred to as ethanol extraction, is a solvent-based method used to extract the active ingredients from the cannabis plant, into a cannabis extract. It’s one of the safest and, along with CO2, one of the most commonly used extraction methods, since there’s no risk of leaving toxic residuals in the final product.
The plant’s material is soaked in alcohol to separate the cannabinoids and terpenes, then the resulting liquid is filtered and finally heated to evaporate the remaining alcohol.
Alcohol extraction can also be done by using isopropyl alcohol instead of ethanol.
Anti-Inflammatory refers to the property of a substance to reduce inflammation or swelling in the human body.
The aroma of cannabis is the scent or smell produced by the cannabis plant. Different cannabis strains can have different aromas, which vary depending on the strain’s terpenoid profile. Terpenes are responsible for producing the unique smell in every cannabis variant, but they also have therapeutic properties.
Bioavailability refers to how much of a substance is absorbed into the body of a living system and is thus able to have an active effect. The availability of a substance you put in your body is closely tied to the method of consumption. A substance generally has a of 100% when administered intravenously, but is generally lower when taken in other ways. The bioavailability of the THC in cannabis can vary between 2-56% when smoked. For instance, if smoking has a bioavailability of 50%, then when you smoke a gram of cannabis only half of the active THC in that gram will enter your bloodstream. Bioavailability tends to be lower with oral ingestion because it has to pass through the gastrointestinal tract and the liver before entering the bloodstream.
Bongs are water pipes used to smoke cannabis flowers or cannabis extracts. They consist of a simple piped mechanism pulls the smoke through a small amount of liquid before entering the user’s lungs. The liquid (usually water), traps some of the heavier particles in the smoke, preventing them from entering the user’s respiratory tract, it also cools down the smoke. The result is a lighter, more purified smoke that is easier to tolerate.
Breeders are cultivation professionals who cross cannabis strains in order to produce new genetic variants of the plant.
A budtender is a dispensary clerk, who’s job is to assist customers in the purchase of cannabis products and accessories. The term comes from a combination of the words “bartender” and “bud.”
Butane extraction is a method used for extracting the active components of the cannabis plant into a cannabis concentrate, using butane as a solvent. This is an effective and low-cost method that is widely used by artisanal producers.
Butane binds to the plant’s trichomes very easily, which makes it very efficient in separating cannabinoids and terpenes from the plant’s material. However, the extraction process must be done under very strict guidelines to ensure that no residual butane is left in the final product, since butane is highly toxic for human health.
It is recommended to only consume butane-extracted cannabis products that can offer third-party lab testing, to make sure that they carry no toxic residuals.
Cannabis Sativa, also known as cannabis, is a flowering plant that is native to Central and South Asia. The term “cannabis” encompasses several non-scientific classifications that include “marijuana” (when the plant has high levels of THC) and “hemp” (when grown for industrial purposes, with little to no THC).
The Cannabis plant has been cultivated and used by humankind for several thousands of years as a source of food and textile fiber, as well as a medicinal substance, and a recreational and spiritual drug.
Cannabinoids are chemical compounds that have the ability to interact with our body’s endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids are naturally produced by the body (endocannabinoids), and they can also be found in cannabis (phytocannabinoids) or created artificially (synthetic cannabinoids).
At least 140 cannabinoids have been found in cannabis to this day, the most famous ones being THC,CBD,CBG and CBN.
CBG, or Cannabigerol is one of at least 140 cannabinoids found in cannabis along with CBD and THC. Although present in small amounts, it has been stated that every cannabis strain has at least 1% of CBG. No research on CBG has been done in humans so far. However, animal trials are offering promising results for this cannabinoid’s medical potential.
CBD (or cannabidiol) is a cannabinoid that is present in large quantities in most cannabis strains. Dozens of clinical studies have found CBD effective in treating a vast number of ailments like epilepsy, PTSD, HIV/AIDS, cancer, MS, Crohn's disease, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, Alzheimer's, and Arthritis.
CBD does not have an intoxicating effect in humans, making it a safe plant-derived therapeutic ingredient.
Cannabicitran is one of the many cannabinoids that make up the cannabis plant. A minor cannabinoid, scientists are still researching it’s therapeutic potential.
Cannabitriol is one of the 140-plus cannabinoids that make up the cannabis plant. Although it’s therapeutic effect is postulated under the entourage effect theory, more research is still needed to unveil its pharmacological potential.
Cannabis capsules are a method of ingesting cannabis through the digestive system.
They consist of pharmaceutical capsules, pre-filled with cannabis extracts or derivates, which can include dried decarboxylated flower, cannabis-infused oil, and isolated cannabinoids.
Capsules are a reliable way of making sure a patient consumes an exact dose, and provide a discrete method of consumption. Their bioavailability equals that of cannabis edibles.
Cannabis edibles are food products or drinks that have been infused with cannabis extracts in order to deliver the plant’s effects through oral ingestion. Edibles can have varying effects depending on the amount ingested and the cannabis strain from which the ingredients have been extracted.
THC-free edibles will have no intoxicating effects on the user, while providing the therapeutic effects associated with CBD and other intoxicating cannabinoids. THC-rich edibles can cause a “high” effect, depending on the dose.
Cannabis oil is a type of therapeutic oil containing cannabis extracts. It’s usually sold in a flask with a dropper, to apply sublingually (under the tongue) or to manually-infuse foods or topicals.
Cannabis oil is usually composed of a carrier oil (natural oils like coconut,olive oil, and hemp seed oil), and a cannabis extract that can include every possible cannabinoid combination.
Cannabis oils can be made from extracts which contain THC, and will produce a mind-altering effect, or they can come from low-THC cannabis. The latter are usually referred to as CBD oils, and will have the therapeutic effects provided by non-intoxicating cannabinoids without causing a “high.”
The cannabis stock market is the part of stock markets that deals in shares from cannabis companies. Most stock exchanges (like NASDAQ or NYSE) hold stocks from various cannabis businesses within their portfolios.
Cannabis tea is any kind of infusion made with cannabis extracts or part of the cannabis plant. Cannabis teas can range from non-psychoactive to very psychoactive, depending on the preparation.
Non-psychoactive cannabis tea is usually made by adding hot water to dried parts of the cannabis plant like the stem, leaves or flowers. Since THC, the psychoactive component of cannabis is not water-soluble, the result will be a cannabis-tasting, THC-free drink.
Psychoactive cannabis tea is made by adding a fatty element like coconut oil, butter or milk to the boiling water. Since THC and other cannabinoids like CBD bind with fat, the result will be a drink that contains the cannabinoids included in that particular plant. If the plant the tea is made from has a high THC content, the tea will be intoxicating. If it’s low-THC, but CBD-rich, the tea will have therapeutic effects but will not cause a “high.”
Other kinds of cannabis teas are made by adding a cannabis extract to regular black tea, or other herbal infusions, the same way cannabis edibles are made.
A cannabis tincture is a type of alcohol-based cannabis extract. Tinctures are a simple and effective method of administering cannabis orally or sublingually. They can also be added to foods and drinks similarly to CBD oils.
To make a cannabis tincture, the plant material must be decarboxylated first, in order to activate its therapeutic compounds. After that, parts of the plant are suspended in alcohol for several weeks until the cannabinoids have been released. Finally, the solid parts are filtered out and the remaining liquid is poured into a flask with a dropper to facilitate administration.
Cannabis topicals are creams, balms, ointments, lotions, and salves that have been infused with cannabis extracts. They’re manufactured to be applied to the skin and provide localized pain relief as well as reduce inflammation and soreness.
CBD oil is a type of cannabis oil that has cannabidiol as a main active ingredient. CBD oils can come as isolates, which include CBD as their only active compound, or they can be whole plant/full spectrum and broad-spectrum oils, which include other cannabinoids and terpenes in the mix.
Although CBD oil can be derived from hemp, it is not the same as hemp oil or hempseed oil.
Clinical trials are tests and studies performed on human voluntary subjects, to study the effects of treatments and medical interventions in human health. Clinical trials are a necessary step in the process of achieving state approval of pharmaceutical products.
Closed-loop extraction is a cannabis extraction technique. In a closed-loop system, the solvents used to separate the active chemicals from the plant are never exposed to the air, but enclosed in a set of pipes and tanks. This method provides a safer, less risky procedure for extraction technicians, and allows for solvents to be reused multiple times.
Convection is a physics term used to describe a situation in which an element is heated through a hot fluid (a gas or a liquid), instead of getting heated by direct contact with a hot surface (conduction).
Convection is used in the context of cannabis consumption, as a feature provided by many vaporizers, as well as the way in which dabbing works. In convection, the cannabis is heated through a warm air flow, that transfers heat evenly and avoids burning the concentrate or dried flower.
CO2 extraction is a cannabis extraction method that uses high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent to separate the plant’s active components from the rest of the plant material. CO2 extraction, along with alcohol extraction, is one of the most popular extraction methods available today, because it represents a low risk for the extraction artist since it’s not highly flammable like other solvents. Since CO2 is a naturally occurring compound it doesn’t represent a toxic hazard for the consumer since it leaves no toxic residue. Lastly CO2’s versatility allows the compound to separate different components from the plant, depending on the temperature and pressure conditions in which it is applied.
In cannabis breeding, a cross or “hybrid” is the genetic offspring of two different cannabis strains. Breeders cross strains to create a new strain that carries characteristics from both parent plants.
Cannabis crystals, also referred to as “kief,” are a powdered cannabis extract that results from grinding dried cannabis and filtering it through a screen. Crystals are actually the plant’s trichomes, which contain a large amount of cannabinoids and other active compounds.
In cannabis agriculture, cultivation is the process of growing cannabis plants for human consumption. Cannabis cultivation is a well-studied field in agricultural sciences. Cultivators use technology and science to control different variables in the plant’s growth process (like light, weather, soil chemistry, and environment control) to achieve different desired results in the harvest.
Curing is a process used in some forms of cannabis production, in which the harvested cannabis is left to dry, in order to achieve the decarboxylation of its cannabinoids.
Curing can be simply done by leaving the harvested cannabis in glass jars, and periodically opening them to allow for the excess moisture to be released. This process elevates the quality of flower buds and makes them ready for consumption.
Dabs are a type of highly concentrated cannabis extract meant to be consumed with a specialized “dab rig.” They usually consist of hash oil.
A dab rig is a type of pipe that has been specially designed for dabbing
Dabbing is a method of cannabis consumption that uses a dab rig (a sort of glass pipe) to vaporize a special type of cannabis extract called a “dab.” When dabbing, the user will heat an empty part of the pipe (called a nail or banger), by using a torch. After the nail has been heated, the cannabis concentrate or “dab” is introduced. The indirect heat evaporates the concentrate, which is then consumed by inhaling from the pipe’s mouthpiece.
Decarboxylation is the process of activating the chemical compounds of cannabis for them to produce a particular effect in the human body or mind. Cannabinoids like CBD or THC are found in raw cannabis in the form of THCA and CBDA (A standing for acid). THCA and CBDA are actually different cannabinoids that have therapeutic effects in humans that differ from the effects provided by THC and CBD. Most notably, THCA has no psychotropic effect, while THC does generate a mind-altering effect.
Decarboxylation is achieved by simply heating the plant material (specifically, the cannabis flower buds), which is the reason dried cannabis is smoked or vaped.
Cannabis also needs to be decarboxylated before the production of cannabis edibles and extracts.
Cannabis delivery methods are the different ways in which cannabinoids can be introduced in the body to obtain their therapeutical or recreational effects. Delivery methods can be grouped into four different categories:
- Inhalation: Cannabinoids enter the system through the respiratory tract, by smoking or vaping the cannabis plant or cannabis extracts.
- Ingestion: Cannabinoids enter through the digestive tract, after consuming edibles, capsules or other extracts.
- Sublingual administration: Cannabinoids enter the bloodstream through tissues under the tongue. Most common cannabis products for this method are tinctures and oils.
- Topicals: Cannabis topicals are applied to the skin as a cream, lotion, or ointment containing active cannabinoids.
Dispensaries, or cannabis shops, are licensed shops that sell cannabis, cannabis products, accessories, and paraphernalia. Dispensary merchandise varies depending on the legality of the products where the shop is located. Most generally, dispensaries offer a wide range of cannabis products including dried flower buds, concentrates, and oils, as well as secondary products used to consume cannabis like vape pens, grinders, pipes, and dab digs.
A double-blind study is a test or trial in which information that could affect the test results is withheld from both the tested subject and the tester in order to avoid influencing the final results.
In a classic example, a patient is invited to participate in a clinical trial for a drug. The participant is given one of two versions of the medicine: one containing the active components and another containing just a placebo. If the trial is double-blind, neither the participant nor the researcher will know which is which, thus allowing the experiment to develop without external influences.
Dronabinol is a synthetic form of THC that is sold in a pharmaceutical context.
Dronabinol is an FDA-approved medicine that can be found under the brand names of Marinol and Syndros. It is often prescribed as an appetite stimulant for HIV/AIDS patients struggling with weight loss, and as an antiemetic to treat the nasuea associated to chemotherapy in cancer patients, though its applications can extend to a wider range of conditions.
Dry sieve or dry sift hash is a cannabis extract made by manually sifting dry cannabis through a very fine mesh screen to separate the trichomes into a powder-like cannabis extract that is of very high quality. Dry sieve hash is a highly regarded form of hash that is appreciated for its purity and artisanal value.
The endocannabinoid system is a complex system of neurotransmitters that exists in humans and many animals. It is composed of cannabinoid receptors which interact with cannabinoids to produce different effects in the body and mind.
The body produces its own cannabinoids, called endocannabinoids, which interact with the endocannabinoid system to perform several homeostatic functions which affect appetite, pain-sensation, mood, memory, and cognitive function. Cannabinoids are also present in the cannabis plant (called phytocannabinoids), which, when introduced to the body, interact with the endocannabinoid system, being able to affect the same bodily and cognitive functions.
The entourage effect is a scientific theory which states that the active components in cannabis interact together in synergy, to produce specific effects on human health that would not be achieved by the same compounds on their own.
By this principle, different combinations of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids achieve different therapeutic results. This principle is the main logic behind whole plant/full spectrum cannabis consumption. Although the entourage effect is still under research, strong evidence suggests it is a real, working principle.
Cannabis extraction is the process of separating the cannabis plant’s cannabinoids and other active compounds into a concentrated product called “cannabis extract” or “concentrate.” Cannabis extraction methods can range from simple homemade techniques to high-end laboratory processes using complex machinery. Extraction can be made by using solvents like CO2, ethanol (alcohol), butane and propane, or by solventless methods that produce extracts like hash or kief.
A “cannabis extract” or “concentrate” is a substance that contains the plant’s active ingredients (cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids), which have been separated from the rest of the plant material through the process of extraction.
Extracts are refined products that offer more precise dosing than flower buds and allow for diverse forms of consumption. Some forms of extracts include oils, tinctures, waxes, shatters, hash, and kief.
Flavonoids are chemical compounds that can be found in a large variety of plants, flowers, and fruits, including the cannabis plant. In cannabis, flavonoids are partly responsible for giving each strain its particular taste, smell, and color pigmentation.
Flavonoids are also chemically active compounds that can have a therapeutic effect in human health. Flavonoids interact synergistically with cannabinoids and terpenes to modify the particular effect a cannabis strain can have on an individual.
Although it is widely accepted that flavonoids are pharmacologically active, they represent an understudied field of cannabis science, and further research is needed to unlock their true potential.
“Flowers,” “Buds,” or “Flower buds” are the part of the female cannabis plant that contain the highest concentration of active chemical compounds (cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids).
Consuming flower buds is of the simplest forms of cannabis consumption, while also one of the most widely used today and throughout history.
Dried flower buds can be directly smoked with a pipe or bong, rolled into a rolling paper, or vaped with the use of a vaporizer.
Flower buds are also the key source material used in the production of more complex cannabis derivates like extracts, edibles, and oils.
The cannabis plant is dioecious, meaning that like many other living beings, it comes in two sexes: male and female. Female cannabis plants carry the highest concentrations of active chemicals like THC or CBD, which is why they are selected for human consumption.
Female cannabis plants are also able to be pollinated by male cannabis plants and produce cannabis seeds.
Full spectrum or high-terpene full spectrum extract is a type of cannabis extract that contains the full, or nearly the full spectrum of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids that exist in the strain of cannabis from which it was made.
Cannabis’ therapeutic effect is mainly produced by cannabinoids, but terpenes also play an important role in the way medical cannabis affects the body. HTFSE may boost cannabis’ therapeutic potential through a proposed principal called the “entourage effect.”
In cannabis cultivation, the flowering time is a stage of development of the cannabis plant, in which flower buds are born from the cannabis stems. Environmental and nurturing conditions during this period strongly affect the chemical outcome (cannabinoid, terpene, and flavonoid profile) of the cannabis flower buds.
In cannabis cultivation, germination is a process through which the cannabis seeds are “activated.” Cannabis seeds can remain in a vegetative state for years if properly stored. Germination is done by keeping the cannabis seeds in a dark, damp environment for several days. After this short period, the seed shells break and the first sprouts come out.
Germination is often done before planting the seeds to make sure they sprout correctly. Once the seeds have germinated, they’re ready to be planted.
Good agricultural practices are sets of principles for practicing agriculture, i.e., the production of plants and livestock for human use. The exact definition of these methods varies depending on the authority who publishes them, but they generally are meant to ensure that agricultural production is safe for human consumption, for the soil, and for the environment.
Good manufacturing practices are guidelines developed by national and international authorities to make sure that manufactured products (like food and medicine) are safe for human consumption and hold a consistent quality from batch to batch.
A greenhouse is a structure made of glass or other transparent materials, designed to house plants like cannabis during their cultivation stages. Greenhouses allow growers to control the plant’s environmental light and temperature in order to produce better crops and achieve higher yields.
Gummies, often referred to as gummy bears, are a popular type of cannabis edible. They are small bear-shaped gelatin-based candies that have been infused with cannabis to produce a therapeutic or recreational effect on the consumer.
Hash or hashish, is a kind of solventless cannabis extract made from the resin of the cannabis plant. Hash is extracted by separating the resinous trichomes from the plant material, and it was one of the first cannabis extracts in human history.
There exist various processes for producing hash, which result in different types of hashish. All types of hash, however, share the characteristic of being produced without the use of solvents.
The result can be a solid resinous material, a powder or a paste-like substance that contains the active compounds of cannabis in a concentrated form.
Hash can be consumed orally (after decarboxylation), smoked purely, or mixed with tobacco or other smokable herbs.
Hash oil, BHO or butane hash oil, also referred to as dabs, wax, honey, or shatter, is a highly concentrated cannabis extract that contains a strong amount of the plant’s active compounds. As opposed to traditional hashish or hash, hash oil is extracted from the cannabis plant by the use of a solvent (usually butane).
The resulting substance can be smoked, vaped or ingested in small amounts to provide a very strong, quick-acting effect. Hash oil is also popularly consumed by dabbing.
The term heirloom refers to a cannabis plant’s characteristic of maintaining a certain genetic purity. Heirloom plants are bred in isolation from other strains of cannabis to avoid genetic cross-pollination that could result in a new strain of cannabis which might lose some of the heirloom’s special characteristics.
Hemp is a strain of the cannabis plant that contains low THC levels and is typically grown for industrial purposes. Hemp has been bred by human kind for thousands of years to produce textile fibers, paper, paint, food, and construction materials.
Hemp needs to contain less than 0.3% THC to not be considered marijuana (0.2% in Europe). However, hemp does contain large amounts of other cannabinoids, most notably CBD. This is why hemp is used to produce CBD oil and other therapeutic cannabis products.
Hempseed oil, or hemp oil, is a type of food-safe oil made by cold-pressing hemp seeds in the same way sunflower oil and olive oil are made. Although this is a hemp-derived product, it does not contain significant amounts of active compounds or cannabinoids. Oils containing cannabinoids are referred to as CBD oils or cannabis oils, and are made from the flowers, stems, or leaves of the plant instead of the seeds.
Humulene is a terpene present in the cannabis plant, as well as in other plants like hops.
Hybrid is a term used to describe certain cannabis strains with mixed genetic profiles. It is believed that the native cannabis plant is divided into two or three subspecies, the most representative of which are Indica and Sativa. Cannabis geneticists today consider all cannabis available to be hybrids, since original subspecies have been bred out by thousands of years of human agriculture.
Hydroponics is a growing technique used in cannabis cultivation, in which the roots of cannabis plants are suspended in water instead of being planted in soil. A water solution allows plant breeders to gain better control of the nutrients to which the roots are exposed. This helps manage yet another variable in the plant’s development, which ultimately affects the final quality of the yield.
Cannabis Indica is a THC-rich subspecies of the cannabis plant that originated in the Indian Subcontinent. There is no scientific consensus as to whether Cannabis Indica is a separate species to Cannabis Sativa or just sub-species of the same plant. The term indica is used colloquially to refer to cannabis plants that produce a sedating, body-relaxing effect, although researchers have found no evidence to claim that indica plants have consistent chemical profiles. Indica plants are shorter than their sativa counterparts, and have broader leaves.
Indoor is a term used in cannabis cultivation to describe a growing scenario in which cannabis plants are grown inside an enclosed environment, where environmental conditions like light, humidity, and temperature are completely under the grower’s control.
Indoor set-ups can range from simple homemade devices installed inside a home closet, to complex high-tech operations growing hundreds of plants.
Isolates are cannabis extracts in which a certain cannabinoid has been isolated from the rest of the plant’s active components. For instance, CBD isolates includes only CBD, but do not include any other cannabinoids or terpenes.
Isolates are considered helpful in strict medical environments, since patients can benefit from the effect of one single cannabinoid, without having side effects of other compounds. However, isolates have received criticism because they lack the ability to produce the proposed “entourage effect.”
Landrace strains are cannabis strains that derived from original crops that were in isolation from other cannabis strains for many centuries, thus establishing certain genetic traits that make them unique. The cannabis plant originally evolved in Central Asia but its seeds were carried by humans to many parts of the world thousands of years ago. Some strains adapted to specific locations and were not crossed with other strains for long periods of time (for example, in Afghanistan, Thailand, or Hawaii). These are the original landrace strains.
Limonene is a terpene found in cannabis and in many other plants and fruits like citrus. Limonene produces a citrus aroma and it is believed to have therapeutic effects, especially when in the company of cannabinoids.
Linalool is an aromatic terpene found in cannabis and other plants. It is believed to have calming effects in humans.
Live resin is a type of cannabis concentrate. It’s particularity resides in the fact that it is produced immediately after the cannabis plants are harvested. This process helps retain some of the plant’s important components like terpenes and flavonoids, which can be lost or degraded during drying and curing.
Marijuana is a non-scientific term used to describe strains of the cannabis plant with a high THC content.
Marijuana has been grown and consumed by humans for thousands of years for its medicinal, spiritual, and recreational potential. This type of cannabis, as opposed to hemp, is specifically bred to be consumed by humans through various available delivery methods.
Marijuana also contains large amounts of CBD, as well as other important cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. There are high-CBD/low-THC strains of marijuana that provide a therapeutic effect without the psychoactive effects usually associated to marijuana.
Naphtha is a petroleum-derived solvent used in cannabis extraction. This petroleum distillate is a highly effective in separating trichomes from the plant material and complete the extraction process. However, it is a very toxic substance which is liable to leave residual particles in the extracted product, which usually make naphtha-extracted cannabis unsafe for human consumption.
Outdoor cultivation refers to a method of growing cannabis plants in the open air, without the use of a greenhouse or an indoor setup. Outdoor cultivation is usually done in warmer climates since the cannabis plant requires long hours of light and warm temperatures to thrive.
Peer review is a method used in academic and scientific research to ensure a specific work has been conducted properly and its results have high quality standards. In this process, after the research has been conducted by a team of researchers, a second team of professionals with equal competence (peers) will review and analyze the research, approving, rejecting or adding notes to the original publication.
In cannabis genetics, “phenotype” is a term used to refer to the overall traits of a single cannabis plant. Cannabis plants (and also every living being on earth) have a genetic code called genotype. The genotype carries all of the developmental possibilities of a single cannabis plant. However, genes from the genotype can be expressed or not, depending on environmental factors that can trigger their manifestation. A plant’s genotype and the environmental conditions to which the plant has been exposed, make up the plant’s final characteristics, which are called phenotype.
Pinene is a terpene commonly found in cannabis and plants like pine trees and other conifers. Evidence suggests pinene can have a medicinal effect in human health, especially when mixed with active cannabinoids.
Pistils are the female cannabis plant’s sexual organs. Pistils have the capacity of receiving pollen produced by male cannabis plants, which is carried by insects, animals, wind, and rain. When a pistil comes in contact with a pollen particle, it develops a seed. Seed development is a necessary stage in cannabis reproduction (i.e., obtaining more plants), but it’s counter-productive to the development of resinous flowers that carry cannabis’ active ingredients.
Preclinical studies are a stage in the development of a drug or medical procedure that come before clinical trials. In this stage, the drug undergoes extensive research, in which the scientists make sure it can be safely tested in humans.
Preclinical studies are a necessary step towards getting approval of a drug by the government or authority in charge.
Pre-rolls are marijuana cigarettes that can be purchased already rolled, saving users the trouble of rolling them themselves.
Propane is a solvent used in cannabis extraction to produce cannabis concentrates. Propane extraction works similarly to butane extraction: the cannabis plant is placed in contact with the solvent, which separates the active components from the plant material. Since propane is highly toxic to human health, it is important that producers remove the left-over propane from the final product, which can be harmful if left as residue.
Propane extraction is a very popular method in artisanal extraction, since it requires low-cost equipment.
QWISO, also known as “quick-wash hash” or “ISO oil” is a cannabis extract made by using isopropyl alcohol to separate the active compounds from the plant material, in a similar process to ethanol extraction.
Reclaim is a term used to describe the residual concentrated cannabis that condenses in dab rigs after being used several times. Reclaim can be safely collected to be consumed again, or simply thrown away.
Residual solvents are left-over chemicals that sometimes remain in bad quality cannabis extracts and concentrates after the extraction process has been completed. Solvents are used in some extraction methods to separate the active components of cannabis from the plant material. After this process is done, solvents must be removed from the concentrate. If the extraction is not done properly, solvents can be included in the final retail product.
Residual solvents can be very hazardous to human health and cause problems like irritation, headaches, dizziness, seizures, and in some cases, death.
Quality cannabis products should offer third-party lab testing that analyzes the final product to make sure that no toxic materials are found.
Cannabis resin is a resinous substance that grows around the plant’s flower buds. It contains a large amount of cannabis’ active compounds. Resin can be extracted through various solventless extraction methods to produce a cannabis extract called hashish.
Rick Simpson Oil, or RSO, is a type of cannabis oil with very high levels of THC, which is extracted using ethanol. It was developed by Canadian engineer Rick Simpson, who invented the extraction recipe for treating his own skin cancer in the early 2000s.
Simpson’s story of successfully curing skin cancer by applying his own oil led to the subsequent fame of Rick Simpson Oil.
Simpson became an advocate for medical cannabis in the treatment of skin cancer, and encourages cancer patients to make RSO themselves with instructions he published on his website.
Cannabis Ruderalis is a subspecies of the cannabis plant that is native to Central Asia.
Although scientists disagree on whether Ruderalis is a separate species of cannabis, it is considered to be the last member of the cannabis family, along with Sativa and Indica. Ruderalis has a low-THC content, but is valued among breeders as a source of genetic material, mainly thanks to its autoflowering properties. It is often used to create new cannabis strains.
Sativa (Latin for cultivated) is a term used to describe a subspecies of the cannabis plant. The term Sativa is used, in contrast to Indica, to colloquially describe certain cannabis strains that have tall stems with narrow leaves and produce a euphoric, mind-altering effect. However, there is no scientific evidence to support the idea that Sativa and Indica are two separate species, or that they even contain consistent chemical profiles.
The term Sativa should not be confused with Cannabis Sativa which is the scientific name of the cannabis plant.
Seed-to-sale concentrates are cannabis products that have been planted, cultivated, grown, harvested, processed, packed, and distributed by one single company. Seed-to-sale products offer the company’s guarantee that the entire supply chain was controlled and supervised by their own standards, making sure no third-party companies were involved in the process.
Sinsemilla or sensimilla (from spanish, meaning seedless) is a type of female cannabis plant that has been prevented from being pollinated by a male cannabis plant. The term also applies to the flower buds of such plants. Buds that have not been pollinated produce significantly larger amounts of THC, which is why sinsemilla flowers are considered to be of high quality.
In cannabis extraction, solvents are substances used to separate the plant’s trichomes from the rest of the plant material. Trichomes contain the largest concentrations of active compounds in the cannabis plant, but they are not water-soluble, so other types of chemicals must be used to break them off from the plant in order to produce cannabis concentrates.
Some of the most widely used solvents in cannabis extraction are CO2, ethanol (alcohol), propane, butane, naphtha, and isopropyl alcohol.
Cannabis strains are genetic variants of the cannabis plant that portray special characteristics that make them unique and different from each other. Thousands of cannabis strains exist today, which have been developed by the process of selective breeding.
Breeders develop new cannabis strains in order to obtain different results from the cannabis plant. These results can be associated with cultivation (for example, creating plants that yield more flowers), or they can be associated to the plant’s therapeutic effects.
Different strains carry different levels of cannabinoids and terpenes, which is why they are used for different purposes in the field of cannabis medicine.
Terpenes are aromatically-rich organic chemical compounds that can be found in a wide variety of plants, flowers, and vegetables. Terpenes are widely used in perfume-making and traditional medicine, and constitute the active ingredients in essential oils.
A large number of terpenes can be found in the cannabis plant and they’re the compounds responsible for giving cannabis strains their distinctive aromas. Since terpenes are produced by the same glands that make cannabinoids like THC and CBD, they’re present in most cannabis extracts.
Terpenes are believed to form a synergistic effect when introduced in the body along with cannabinoids, by a proposed principle called the “entourage effect.” Vast evidence is also leading scientists to believe that terpenes have therapeutic effects on their own, and their presence in cannabis products greatly modifies the effect cannabis has on the consumer.
THC is one of the most present cannabinoids in cannabis. This chemical compound is responsible for producing the plant’s intoxicating, mind-altering effect. THC’s psychoactive effect has been one of the main reasons behind cannabis consumption throughout human history.
In recent decades, hundreds of peer-reviewed clinical trials have proved THC’s therapeutic potential well beyond its psychoactivity, in the treatment of several medical conditions including cancer, HIV/Aids, Parkinson’s disease, Crohn’s disease, MS, fibromyalgia and autism.
Trichomes are microscopic, crystalline, mushroom-shaped protuberances that from outside of the cannabis plant’s flowers and leaves when the cannabis is mature. They are produced by the cannabis plant to protect itself from predators and environmental dangers.
Trichomes are especially valuable in cannabis production because they represent the part of the plant where the highest amounts cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids are concentrated.
Separating the trichomes from the rest of the plant is the main objective of cannabis extraction.
Trimming is the act of removing the unnecessary plant material that surrounds the cannabis flowers after they’ve been harvested. Trimmers work by manually cutting off the plant’s leaves and stems in order to leave only the flower buds which contain the largest concentrations of active compounds.
Vaporizers, or vapes, are smoking devices that are used to consume cannabis through inhalation.
There are multiple kinds of vaporizers. A first category is used to vaporize dried cannabis flower buds. This presents an alternative to smoking, since the devices heat the flowers to a point where the cannabinoids are released, but the buds are not burned. The result is a light vapor that causes less harm to the user’s lungs and is easier to smoke. Flower vaporizers can be small portable devices or larger table-top utilities.
A second category consists of vaping devices used to vaporize cannabis concentrates. These can vaporize cannabis oil, which can be sold pre-filled inside cartridges, or stronger concentrates like hash oil.
In cannabis cultivation, the vegetative stage is a period in the plant’s development in which the plant focuses on growing its stems and leaves, as it reaches adulthood. This is an important stage in the plant’s development which ends when the plant gets its first flowers and enters the flowering stage.
Water hash or bubble hash is a type of cannabis extract. In this form of hashish, the main active components in the plant are separated from the plant material by using ice, water, and screens. It’s a clean, solventless method of producing cannabis concentrates that can be done at home.